【PTM】《哈利波特》咒語的詞源

防禦巫師鬥法大賽 工讀生基努 voldenuit

發表於 2017-01-11 22:25:08
+30

《哈利波特》咒語的詞源
The etymology of Harry Potter spells


每個咒語背後都有段故事……
Every spell has a story to tell…



        《哈利波特》的世界充滿了陌生且神奇的語言,雖然這些詞語聽起來像外星語而且很新穎,但事實上它們都起源於現實世界。咒語也不例外,它們的起源可追溯到拉丁語的詞匯和短語;有些咒語是直譯,有些則是經過謹慎的改造,並且跟其他語言的碎片組合而成。《哈利波特》的咒語是語言改變和演化的極佳例子,以下是五則關於魔法世界最有名咒語的故事……

        Harry Potter is a world of strange and magical language, filled with words that sound alien and new, but in fact have their roots in the real-world. Spells are no exception, with the origins of many incantations harking back to Latin terms and phrases; some spells translate pretty directly, while others have been carefully crafted and assembled from fragments of other languages. It's a fascinating example of how language changes and evolves, so here's a look at five of our favourite stories behind some of the wizarding world's most famous spells…


護法咒
The Patronus Charm

        「Expecto Patronum」是一種可以讓哈利召喚出雄鹿護法的咒語,可粗略地翻譯成「我期待(或等待)一位保護者」——這可說是恰如其份。至於「Patronus 」這個字本身則有段更有趣的歷史。「Patronus」在古羅馬亦有保護者的意思,但箇中含義卻截然不同。在古代羅馬,一位來自上流階級的人士,可成為另一位財力和社會地位都不如他的人的保護者,兩者會締結成「patronage(保護)」關係。「Patronage」這個字很大機會是來自「Pater」——拉丁語中的「父親」。在任何年代,在任何形式,「Patronus」這個字都是跟保護息息相關。

        'Expecto Patronum', the spell that conjures up Harry’s magnificent stag Patronus, roughly translates into 'I expect (or 'await') a guardian' in Latin, which is apt. The actual result of the spell, the Patronus itself, has an even more interesting history. In Ancient Rome, the word 'patronus' meant protector too, but with very different connotations. A patronus in Ancient Rome was someone of a high class who had a 'patronage' relationship with a client, who would usually be less rich, or lower class. In turn, the word ’patronage’ most likely came from the term 'Pater', which means 'father' in Latin. In whatever time, in whatever form, the word 'patronus' always relates to protection.




整整石化
Petrificus Totalus

        全身鎖咒的發音聽起來很像拉丁語,因此你大概已猜到它受到拉丁語很大的影響。不過,這個咒語仍有些許的古希臘語摻集其中。首先,「Petra」這個字源於「Petros」,在希臘語可解作「石頭」。「Ficus」是一個拉丁語後綴詞,意思是「製造」或「做」某些東西。「Totalus」改編自「Totalis」,可解作「完全」或「整體」。因此粗略地說,「Petrificus Totalus」可譯為「製作/石頭/完全地」,而我們敢肯定這個咒語的受害者(例如奈威‧隆巴頓),完全地明白這個咒語。

        The Body-Binding spell is heavily influenced by Latin, as you may have guessed from its very Latin-sounding name. However, there are dashes of Ancient Greek in this incantation too. First, we have 'Petra', which is derived from 'petros' which means 'rock' in Greek. 'Ficus' is a Latin suffix which denotes 'making' or 'doing' something. ‘Totalus’ is a loose reworking of 'totalis', which, once again, is Latin, meaning 'total' or 'entire'. So roughly speaking, ‘Petrificus Totalus’ translates to 'Make rock totally’, which we're sure victims of the curse, such as Neville Longbottom, totally understand all too well.



去去武器走
Expelliarmus

        在七集《哈利波特》裡,「去去武器走」是最常用的咒語之一。而在《死神的聖物》裡,就連食死人也知道這個咒語是哈利的常用招式。我們已經看過這個咒語很多次了,但到底它是怎樣組成的呢?「Expel」這個字由兩個拉丁詞語所組成,可追溯到十四世紀的中古英語。「Ex」的意思是「out(逐出)」,而「Pellere」的意思是「to drive(驅動)」,因此兩個字加起來便是「Expel(驅逐)」。「Armus」聽起來很像身體的某個部位——「Arm(手臂)」,或是專指肩關節。由於「arm」跟拉丁語詞匯「arma(武器)」很相似,所以在最後也演變出「武裝」的意思。(例如 to 'arm' yourself with a wand 即是「用魔杖武裝你自己」)把這些音節串連在一起後,我們得出一句粗略譯成的短語——「驅逐武器」,而這正正是「去去武器走」會做的事。

        Expelliarmus is one of the most-used spells across all seven Harry Potter books, to the extent that Harry is known by the Death Eaters for using it during Deathly Hallows. We've seen the word so many times, but how did it come together? ‘Expel’ harks back to 1300s Middle English, where two Latin terms were combined to create it. 'Ex' means 'out' and 'pellere' means 'to drive', which finally formed the word ‘expel’. Its definition in basic terms means to 'drive out'. 'Armus', as you may expect, is indeed Latin for a similar sounding part of the body: the arm, or specifically the shoulder joint. In time, the term 'arm' took on combat meaning (such as, to 'arm' yourself with a wand) with the Latin term 'arma' meaning weapon. Piecing the syllables back together, we have a rough translation of the phrase 'drive out weapon' – which is precisely what Expelliarmus does.




路摸思和吶喀嘶
Lumos and Nox

        路摸思和吶喀嘶是一對姊妹咒語,分別代表給予和奪走光明。「Lumos(路摸思)」來自十九世紀的拉丁詞語——「lumen」,意思是「light(光明)」。在後面加上後綴語「os」可解作「需要某些東西」,因此整句話的意思是「需要光明」。「Nox(吶喀嘶)」在拉丁語解作「黑夜」,它的詞根可追溯到希臘神話。「Nyx(倪克斯)」跟「Nox(吶喀嘶)」有密切關係,倪克斯是希臘神話裡黑夜女神的名字——一個讓人生畏的陰暗角色,以擁有強大威力聞名,就連宙斯也曾經被她恐嚇。

        Sister spells Lumos and Nox give light and take it away, respectively. Lumos could well come from the 19th-century Latin word ‘lumen’, which simply means 'light'. Adding the Latin suffix 'os' means to 'have something’: to have light, in this instance. Nox is Latin for 'night', but is also rooted in Greek mythology. 'Nyx', closely related to 'Nox', is the name for the Greek goddess of night: a feared, shadowy figure who was known as a powerful force, and even intimidated the mighty Zeus.




撕淌三步殺
Sectumsempra

        這個以「S」字開頭的咒語,跟一個名字裡同樣有「S」音的男人有關——賽佛勒斯‧石內卜(Severus Snape)。不過這個咒語是如此地複雜,又具有蓄意的致命性,其命名靈感應該不止這麼簡單吧?更深入地看,我們會發現石內卜也對拉丁語情有獨鐘。他這個自創咒語的前半部份「Sectum」在拉丁語解作「被切割」,而「賽佛勒斯」這個名字本身也有「切割(sever)」的意思——實在是有趣的用詞選擇。

        至於這個詞語的後半部份簡直是神來之筆。雖然「sempra」不是拉丁語,但它跟「semper(永遠)」這個字很接近,我們可在拉丁短語「semper fidelis」找到這個字。當你知道這句短語的意思後,你會發現它真的是意義深遠——「永遠忠誠」。不覺得這跟石內卜還挺相稱的嗎?

        A word dominated by the letter S was related to a man with a similar example of sibilance in his own name – Mr Severus Snape. But surely Snape must have had more inspiration than that for such a complex spell name with such deadly intentions? Digging deeper, we can see that Snape was fond of Latin too, seeing as the first half of his self-made curse, 'sectum', is Latin for 'having been cut’: an interesting choice for a man who has the word 'sever' in his own name.

        The second part of the word, however, is fascinating. Because although 'sempra' isn't a Latin word, it is very close to the word 'semper', which was known in the Latin phrase 'semper fidelis'. This becomes a particularly big deal once you realise what it means: ‘always loyal’. Pretty perfect, don't you think?



原文港口鑰
摸摸可憐的奈威QWQ
還有我一直覺得「Sectumsempra」聽起來有點像「Tempura 甜不辣」…(逃
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鯖魚.CI.生研(ノ ∀` *) Yen0607

回覆於 2017-01-11 22:43:59
看到ptm的文就知道是基努來了(X
太厲害了啦!!這翻譯好神!!
內容也超詳盡/
p.s.拉丁語好難!

sandy /小鷹幼幼班 leesandy3633

回覆於 2017-01-11 22:56:24
太酷了~
我覺得羅琳媽媽真的厲害,雖然小說前幾集本身用字不難,但是精確,然後名字跟這些咒語都常常有根源的,往往用這些原本的字的意思看回來會覺得真的用的恰如其分! 真不愧是作家跟唸語言的高手~
另外看到斯躺三步殺背後的意義覺得有些傷心,但又真的
很高明啊,表面意義看起來是要攻擊敵人,但背後呈現的是真正的賽佛勒斯QQ
謝謝樓主的分享,好精采的翻譯!

鷹院食材/小萊→_→ Slytherin

回覆於 2017-01-12 01:20:58
嘶淌三步殺的原由含義好深…… 深深的攻擊、切割,就跟石內卜一樣,但被後是永遠刻骨銘心的愛……
哈利波特真的不只是本童書!所有的用字都有這麼深遠的意義
也讓我想認真上語言學了XDD
好希望能知道更多咒語背後的故事!!

草原跳的羊 harryptweb

回覆於 2017-01-12 10:00:30
翻譯的好棒~~
感謝基努的熱情翻譯!

覺得 Sectumsempra 這段的故事最棒,
畢竟這個咒語就是石內卜發明出來的,
有這段淵源讓這個咒語的意義更深了~
不過其實跳羊更好奇的是,
一個咒語的發明,它的咒文是不是發明人可以自己挑XD

另外,跳羊幫忙從後台修正了一些翻譯錯誤,
修成官方正式的翻譯版本這樣比較好閱讀囉~
路摸斯 => 路摸思
諾克斯 => 吶喀嘶
塞佛勒斯 => 賽佛勒斯

茉依拉 morai

回覆於 2017-01-12 13:10:50
感謝樓主的翻譯及分享!!!
讀越多PTM的文章就越崇拜羅琳,
實在是太多太多細節了,
還有好多好多令人驚奇的想法和可以挖掘的東西,
到底是如何創造出這些的~

p.s另一位也是世界建構的很強大的是托爾金(忍不住要提一下)

史丁森小姐 windangel

回覆於 2017-01-12 13:30:03
每次看到有人翻譯,真的打從心裡佩服
我的英文是喳喳

每個咒語真的都意義深遠呢



另外,看到這篇,
想到另一個影片,想要跟大家分享,
他也是用咒語的詞源來做教學,順便學英文?


蜂蜜章魚燒 sirius19591103

回覆於 2017-01-12 21:37:03
謝謝基努的翻譯!!
之前就有想過咒語詞根的問題了,但經過基努的翻譯感覺了解的又更透徹了呢OuOb
Sectumsempra這個咒語真是意義深遠啊(敬佩

Roger喆 Roger10435276

回覆於 2017-01-12 23:01:55
一邊學咒語一邊學拉丁文(和希臘文)
真是一舉數得啊!
感謝基努大人的翻譯

不過......港口鑰是不是被打成巷口鑰啦?

小獅幼幼班.哲.AS.生研 wbmallen

回覆於 2017-01-13 08:12:49
真的沒想這些咒語也有各自的淵源
有些甚至是從拉丁文來的
謝謝翻譯!!

@windangel
偷偷說其實我也有訂閱><
裡面還滿多實用英文的XD

防禦巫師鬥法大賽 工讀生基努 voldenuit

回覆於 2017-01-13 08:26:10
@Yen0607
耶死~我又來翻譯了(X
真的…拉丁語根本外星語QWQ

@leesandy3633
同意羅琳媽媽實在太厲害了~
任何方面的設定都不含糊,難怪哈波會是經典
「撕淌三步殺」真的是咒如其人,以後看到這個咒語都會多了一份感慨…
謝謝Sandy,我會繼續努力的!!XDD

@Slytherin
看小萊這麼說賽佛勒斯,好想哭喔…QQ
我也想知道更多咒語的故事,例如索命咒(不

@harryptweb
野生的跳羊羊!(抱
我覺得咒文是發明人可以自己挑,畢竟是他發明的嘛XDD
(跳羊羊會舉辦咒語發明大賽嗎?XDD

抱歉用錯譯名QWQ
因為手頭上沒有台版的哈波,所以有些譯名沒有跟上…><
感謝跳羊羊百忙之中幫我修正,辛苦了!!

@morai
真的,每當看到一篇分析的文章,都會對羅琳多一份讚嘆!!
哈波的世界就像鑽石一樣,從不同角度看會折射出不同光芒,總會帶給人新驚喜
p.s. 我也喜歡魔戒,托爾金連精靈語也能創造出來,也是強大得可怕(讚賞意味XDD

@windangel
其實我的英文也是一般…><
居然有教學影片,太神奇了!!介紹了好多咒語呢!!XDD

@sirius19591103
燒燒好厲害!!我小時候看的是中文版,只覺得咒語很好笑,沒想過詞根問題←笨
翻完這篇漲了不少姿勢OvO

@Roger10435276
我不是大人…
哈波其實是外語課本XDD
感謝提醒!!立刻手刀去改(所以這個港口鑰其實是可以連結斜角巷的巷口(不

@wbmallen
這些咒語的淵源實在太強大了,好想多了解!!
我也要偷偷按個訂閱…XDD
123>>>|
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